London

London
Heron TowerTower 4230 St Mary AxeLeadenhall BuildingWillis BuildingLloyds BuildingCanary Wharf20 Fenchurch StreetCity of LondonLondon UndergroundElizabeth TowerTrafalgar SquareLondon EyeTower BridgeRiver ThamesLondon montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
About this image
Clockwise from top: City of London in the foreground with Canary Wharf in the far background, Trafalgar Square, London Eye, Tower Bridge and a London Underground roundel in front of
Interactive map outlining London
London is located in England
London
London
Location within England
London is located in the United Kingdom
London
London
Location within the United Kingdom
London is located in Europe
London
London
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722; -0.12750UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
Area codes
PoliceCity of London
Metropolitan
Fire and RescueLondon
AmbulanceLondon
AirportsHeathrow (LHR)
City (LCY)
Outside London:
Gatwick (LGW)
Stansted (STN)
Luton (LTN)
Southend (SEN)
GeoTLDlondon.gov.uk

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans.[9] The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits.[10][11][12][13][14][note 1] The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.[15][note 2][16]

London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities[17][18][19] and has been termed the world's most powerful,[20] most desirable,[21] most influential,[22] most visited,[23] most expensive,[24][25] innovative,[26] sustainable,[27] most investment friendly,[28] and most popular for work[29] city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation.[30][31] London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance.[32] It is one of the largest financial centres[33] and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP.[note 3][34][35][36][37][38] It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals[39] and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic.[40] It is the leading investment destination,[41][42][43][44] hosting more international retailers[45][46] and ultra high-net-worth individuals[47][48] than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe,[49] and is home of world-class institutions such as Imperial College London in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and the London School of Economics in economics, finance, and business.[50][51][52] In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.[53]

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.[54] Its estimated mid-2018 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,908,081,[4] the most populous of any city in the European Union[55] and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population.[56] London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.[57] The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.[note 4][3][58] London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925.[59]

London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement in Greenwich where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and Greenwich Mean Time.[60] Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting events. These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.[61] The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.

Toponymy

"London" is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium;[62] for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").[63]

Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136.[62] This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.[64]

Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English.[65]

The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.[66] However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.[67][65]

Until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and Greater London.[68] "London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN".[69]