Kenya

Republic of Kenya

Jamhuri ya Kenya (Swahili)
Motto: "Harambee" (Swahili)
"Let us all pull together"
Anthem: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"
(English: "O God of all creation")
Location of Kenya (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue)
Location of Kenya (dark blue)

in the African Union (light blue)

Location of Kenya
Capital
and largest city
Nairobi
1°16′S 36°48′E / 1°16′S 36°48′E / -1.267; 36.800
Official languages
National languageSwahili[1]
Ethnic groups
(2018[2])
Demonym(s)Kenyan
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Uhuru Kenyatta
William Ruto
Kenneth Lusaka
Justin Muturi
David Maraga
Paul Kihara Kariuki
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
12 December 1963
• Republic declared
12 December 1964
Area
• Total
580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi)[3][4] (48th)
• Water (%)
2.3
Population
• 2019 census
47,564,296[5] (29th)
• Density
78/km2 (202.0/sq mi) (124th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$190.182 billion[6]
• Per capita
$3,868 [7]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$99.246 billion [7]
• Per capita
$2,010 [7]
Gini (2014)42.5[8]
medium · 48th
HDI (2018)Decrease 0.579[9]
medium · 147th
CurrencyKenyan shilling (KES)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Date formatdd/mm/yy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+254
ISO 3166 codeKE
Internet TLD.ke
[2] According to the CIA, estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of mortality because of AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex, than would otherwise be expected.

Kenya (ə/ (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Africa with 47 semiautonomous counties governed by elected governors. At 580,367 square kilometres (224,081 sq mi), Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population of more than 47.6 million people, Kenya is the 29th most populous country.[5] Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi while its oldest city and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret.

Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the North West, Ethiopia to the North, Somalia to the East, Uganda to the West, Tanzania to the South and the Indian Ocean to the South-East.

Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) started migrating from present-day Southern Sudan into Kenya around 500 BC.[10] European colonisation of Kenya began in the 19th century during the European exploration of the interior. The modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in 1895 and the subsequent Kenya Colony, which began in 1920. Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution, which began in 1952, and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1963. After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The current constitution was adopted in 2010 to replace the 1963 independence constitution.

Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which elected officials represent the people and the president is the head of state and government.[11] Kenya is a member of United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, COMESA, International Criminal Court and other international organisations. With a GNI of 1,460,[12] Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy. Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa.[13][14] with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub.[14] Agriculture is the largest sector; tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa.[15] Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union.[16]

Etymology

The Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The earliest recorded version of the modern name was written by German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf in the 19th century. While travelling with a Kamba caravan led by the legendary long distance trader Chief Kivoi, Krapf spotted the mountain peak and asked what it was called. Kivoi told him "Kĩ-Nyaa" or "Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa" probably because the pattern of black rock and white snow on its peaks reminded them of the feathers of the cock ostrich.[17] The Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, while the Embu call it "Kirenyaa." All three names have the same meaning.[18]

Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia.[19][20][21] Others say that this was—on the contrary—a very precise notation of a correct African pronunciation ə/.[22] An 1882 map drawn by Joseph Thompsons, a Scottish geologist and naturalist, indicated Mt. Kenya as Mt. Kenia, 1862.[17] The mountain's name was accepted, pars pro toto, as the name of the country. It did not come into widespread official use during the early colonial period, when the country was instead referred to as the East African Protectorate. It was changed to the Colony of Kenya in 1920.